THE MISSING LINK
“This general tendency to eliminate, by means of unverifiable speculations, the limits of the categories nature presents to us is the inheritance of biology from The Origin of Species. To establish the continuity required by theory, historical arguments are invoked, even though historical evidence is lacking. Thus are engendered those fragile towers of hypothesis based on hypothesis, where fact and fiction intermingle in an inextricable confusion.”
“…inquiring minds, even when misled, could not help making some discoveries.”
Isaac Asimov (Asimov’s Chronology of Science and Discovery)
THE MISSING LINK HAS BEEN FOUND!
Is the theory of the evolution of life good for science? Although, in the quote above, Asimov wasn’t talking about modern evolutionists, he should have been, the idea still rings true. In the search for verification of evolutionary ideas they cannot help making some actual discoveries. These discoveries are driving the focus towards intelligent design.
But discovering something you can’t prove with science doesn’t count. Evolutionists create billions of years of history based on assumptions, guesses, interpretations and belief. Is this good for science? Essentially evolutionary stories take the same course as would an elaborate lie. A story is made up about an event that cannot be verified. When evidence comes along that exposes the story for the fiction that it is, more details are added to make it sound plausible again. The details grow, the story deepens and the view gets complicated enough to require an expert to decipher.
The book “LIFE: Evolution Explained” (2007) By Philip Whitfield is a typical example of the books that are being offered to the general public under the guise of a scientific story of evolution. The poorly edited but beautifully illustrated book is riddled with evolutionary fiction. It uncritically examines the story of evolution and, like many other books on evolution, it presents the stories without a hint that science has not yet proven the “facts” behind them. The book contains hundreds of references to assumed evolutionary events and uses uncertainty words and phrases very liberally. Of the 200 pages in the book uncertainty words occurred more than 330 times. This does not include the many times that an evolutionary event was assumed and presented as fact where no facts could possibly exist. A list of words used in the book provides a fairly extensive list of “missing science” words and phrases that indicate where science is missing in the story of evolution.
Picture the story of evolution like a chain. Each link in the chain should be forged by science. Each part of the story that cannot be supported by science is considered a “missing link.” How much science is really missing from the story of evolution?
Here is a list of words that indicate “Missing Science” in evolutionary literature.
They all come from books on evolution and represent places where science should have been done to demonstrate the “fact” of evolution.
They are used to bypass things that lack experiment or observation and represent speculation and guesswork.
- Almost certainly
- Apparently, appears to be
- Around (as estimate)
- As though
- Assume, assumed to be, assuming
- At some point
- Believe (NCSE recommends this word not be used)
- Circumstantial evidence
- Consensus, agree, complete Agreement
- Controversy, dispute, argument
- Could be, could have
- Feel (a feeling that its correct)
- Held to mean
- If (contingent on something unproven also being true)
- Imagine (imaginary data presented as the subject of a test or analysis)
- Maybe, may have
- Might be, might have
- Must be, must have
- No one knows
- Points to (to guide you through an unknown factor)
- Possibly (not to indicate actual statistics)
- Probably, probable (not to indicate actual statistics)
- Seems, seemingly
- Should be, Should have
- Something like
- Speculation, informed speculation
- Thought to be, thought to have)
- Think (i.e. scientists think that)
- Theory (meaning hypothesis)
- Would be, would have
- Whatever (to indicate uncertainty)
There is no doubt that a very credible sounding story can be woven that incorporates many facts that science has discovered. But are the links that connect the data made of science as well? How many evolutionary “facts” are based on events that no one witnessed, that left no mark or where details are said to have been “erased?” How many links really are “missing?” More importantly, are they missing because they haven’t been found or because they were never there? Science is not a plausible answer, a possible scenario or scientists in agreement.
The key words and phrases to look for in science literature are, “maybe”, “might have”, “probably”, “likely”, “must have been”, “could have been”, “believes,” “according to” and many more. These are “links” used in place of events and processes that cannot be joined with science. How big a space do the “maybe’s” and “might have’s” actually fill?
Do the stories start or end with “we may never know” or that something is “obscure” or “more research is needed.”
It’s a good thing that science writers are free with these words and phrases because it allows anyone to identify where the science ends and the storytelling begins. If they fear using them or cease to be free with them it only proves they recognize the weakness of their arguments. This is exemplified in a statement by Eugenie Scott of the NCSE,
“You believe in God. You believe your sports team is going to win. But you don’t believe in cell division. You don’t believe in thermodynamics. Instead, you might say you “accept evolution.”
Note the unrealistic comparison of non-observable or testable evolution to observational and experimentally based cell division and thermodynamics.
Does substituting the word “believe” with “accept” change the science or lack thereof behind that acceptance?
There is no question that the evolutionists are trying to fill the gaps in the story with science and there is nothing wrong in doing so. That’s what the scientific method is for, to discover the facts that fill in the gaps.
We can demonstrate the problem by seeing what effect missing link phrases have on some well established scientific facts.
● Scientists believe that light travels at 186,282 miles per second.
● The heart could be a pump for the circulation of blood.
● The earth probably orbits the sun.
● Energy might equal mass times the speed of light squared. More research is needed.
The thing is that all the above questions were actually posed in the past. But now they have answers that science has proven to be true and that can be reaffirmed at any time. We don’t use the terms “might have” or “maybe” when we have established something. You don’t write a check when you only think you might have enough money to cover it. Well most of us don’t. Are evolutionists floating a lot of research paper, writing checks against science that hasn’t been done?
The reason evolution is considered “established” by many scientists is based on philosophical considerations not on science. It’s based on what science “could” discover instead of what has actually been established. But can the critical details stand on the uncertainty of “could be” or “might be”?
A fact established by science occurs when you cross the finish line not just because scientists are employed in the investigation. The starting line is the hypothesis. It is there where you use the uncertainty words. Everyone must be able to retrace the steps taken in the investigation. Imaginary data, processes or observations should disqualify a scientific hypothesis from becoming a fact. Scientific confirmation is not when everyone who accepts an idea are finally imagining the same details. The “might’s” and “maybe’s” are the evidence that the science is missing.
Uncertainty words are used to bridge the gaps, to create the imaginary connections that make evolution sound plausible. Without them the story of evolution falls apart. When you examine what science has shown against what evolutionists believe or “accept” you find that the biggest missing link in the story of evolution is science itself.
“All sciences begin with speculation; only Darwinism routinely ends with it”
Michael Behe (Darwin’s Black Box)
WHAT QUESTIONS ARE STILL WAITING ON SCIENCE TO CONFIRM THE “FACTS”
There are literally thousands of missing links in the evolutionary story, this is just a brief list of a few of the areas where conjecture and assumption rather than science is used to affirm events in the distant past. These examples from various books on evolution show how uncertainty words reveal where science does not support an area of a story presented as science. For evolution, what you don’t know just might save your theory.
MISSING LINK: LIFE’S ORIGINS
“I do not know the origin of life. Those of us who hold, like I do, that life emerged spontaneously from inanimate matter are, we must admit, at a distinctly embarrassing disadvantage: we have not yet come up with a convincing mechanism for abiogenesis.” -Brian L. Silver, “The Ascent of Science” pg 339
“We do not know how life arose from the primordial soup. This remains the greatest gap in our knowledge of the development of life. Many scientists believe that millions of years of random mixing and shuffling of molecules culminated in the appearance of one living cell -an object that could consume surrounding chemicals to make exact copies of itself.” -Robert M. Hazen & James Trefil, “Science Matters” (pg 246)
“Nobody knows.” -Richard Dawkins. (He goes a step further, claiming ignorance for everyone on his behalf. assuming that since he doesn’t know that no one else does either.)
Why are they embarrassed? Because they insist they have the answer, but they continually show up empty handed. They’ve claimed to understand the origins of life, yet when they are asked to produce the finished product, the science that proves the assertions, they have nothing to offer. Evolution’s starting point is not yet supported by science. It is by faith that evolutionary scientists believe in abiogenesis. By the way, even though they are being honest about their ignorance, there are no extra points for honesty when you dishonestly claim that science supports that the event was natural.
What’s missing from the equation? They understand the molecules involved, they understand the structure, they know what components need to be built and what the end product should look like. They also know that what they know isn’t enough to confirm what they believe. Oddly they think that since they are still in the dark everyone else must be also. Because although they don’t know a “convincing” formula, they already have their answer. The science that has been done actually proves that a natural origin of life is impossible. Accept it.
MISSING LINK: HOW LONG
“It may have taken millions of years to create the first cell, but within a relatively short period of time, perhaps only a few years, that cell’s offspring probably filled the world’s oceans, consuming much of the organic raw materials and greatly reducing the chance that any other type of cell would spontaneously arise.” -Robert M. Hazen & James Trefil, “Science Matters”
So if the right conditions exist, if the right building blocks are available how long does it take for a cell to “spontaneously” arise? Maybe the fact that science still hasn’t been able to reproduce the origin of life event is evidence that it really does take millions of years. Just accept. How long does it take from the time where all the components needed for a cell are in the same location and organized to the point where they combine into a living cell? “Millions of years” is the fudge factor here, not a scientific answer. They are a cloak, behind which they hide their ignorance. Every day we have trillions (Americans understand that amount now) of examples of all the correct ingredients for life spontaneously ceasing to be alive. The spark of life has to occur quickly once the right elements are in the right place at the same time. Since the elements are short lived the assembly of the first cell must be measured in minutes, and that includes the fantastically improbable event that all the elements are in the right amounts and are in the right place. The science that demonstrates this to be true has yet to be done. It might take millions of years for the right chemical components to show up in the right place at the same time and then a series of reactions to lead up to the first cell, but it only takes a moment and a single error to stop the whole process. Do they imagine that in their scenarios?
MISSING LINK: THE INSTRUCTIONS
(silence) -Richard Dawkins
Information is the most important element of life’s origins. In general it seems that most evolutionary texts agree with Dawkins and can’t properly address the origin of information. Evolutionists envision DNA, RNA, proteins, cell walls, organelles forming spontaneously, but how did the information to build all these things get programmed into the cell? The coordination and operation of the individual parts of the cell are information based. Where did the regulation come from? How did the DNA come to direct and specify the proteins and structures that originally “spontaneously” arose? This is a major missing link in the evolutionary story. Is there lots of missing science here or has science already shown us that information is the product of intelligence. It is the foundation of almost every other missing link in the story of evolution.
To get around the idea of information arising from nothing evolutionists come up with various un-testable scenarios in which DNA sequences are taken from other mysterious sources. Ideas such as gene duplication and co-option don’t answer the question of how the information could originate in the first place, they just sidestep around the problem. Is that how science should work?
MISSING LINK: RAW MATERIALS FOR EVOLUTION
“If evolution is really driven by the accumulation of mutations in DNA molecules, then one measure of how long it has been since two species shared a common ancestor is the differences in their genetic codes.” -Robert M. Hazen & James Trefil, “Science Matters”
Note: the word “measure” is used incorrectly, it is an estimate based on assumption several assumptions. Which makes its use in verifying those assumptions circular.
Do mutations really provide the raw material for evolution? In their rhetorical question the big word is “IF.” They aren’t really asking if its possible, they take it on faith that it is. The big word here is “IF.” This idea that mutations can provide new genetic information is based on consensus, not science. Evolutionists agree that information is added by mutation, but they can’t back it up with examples that don’t require you to “believe.” Comparing the genes of two organisms that they assume evolved from one another does not prove mutations created new information in the genes. It simply assumes evolution occurred. Real life science proves that mutations do not add up to new code, they destroy it. The more complex and integrated the system, the more likely mutations will cause it to fail.
When evolution was first envisioned no one knew that a cell required information to operate. Genetic variation was not understood by Darwin or those who were promoting evolution during the 19th century. In fact, when the knowledge of variation was introduced to science, it caused many scientists to correctly question Darwinian evolution, because it was only a source for existing traits. By the 1940s, the cause of new genetic material was believed to be mutation. Yet even then mutations were still mysterious miracles that could explain any feature that was observed because no one understood the digital code nature of DNA. Evolutionists were again taking advantage of scientific ignorance. The understanding that the DNA was a digital code came more than a decade after mutations were declared raw material and more century after evolution been established as factual in the minds of many. Evolution was not accepted based on an understanding of biology but in spite of it. Currently, the belief that mutations can produce new information is not supported by science. We find evolutionists trying to convince themselves that blindness, antibiotic resistance, loss of the ability to fly and sickle cell anemia are the evidence of beneficial mutations. Belief in evolution is clearly being driven by something other than science. Without a source for information, life doesn’t exist and molecules to man evolution doesn’t occur.
One fallacious idea often presented is that neutral mutations can eventually add up to new genetic code. This however is easily shown to be false. A series of neutral mutations does not decrease the odds of the overall effect being harmful nor does it decrease the frequency in which harmful mutations occur. The organs and structures in life are very rarely independent of the rest of the organism or the environment. A new structure involves not only designing the new structure, but also adding genetic information to incorporate it into the whole. Randomly adding genetic information may remain neutral for a while, but with each new addition to the code the chances that it will cause the whole assembly to fail or loose functionality increase as well.
MANY MORE MYSTERIES
Once the general principle of evolution is accepted then all of the individual designs of new structures, systems and relationships in nature fall into the category of “already proven” and all that seems to be needed for someone in authority to offer a plausible explanation. The problem is that even the most detailed evolutionary explanation lacks two critical details, observation and repeatability. Once a logical, “convincing” sequence of events has been presented the next step, a demonstration that this is in fact the way it occurred cannot be offered. All evolutionary changes resulting in new design are believed to have happened in the remote past and cannot be repeated. So does this rule out observation and repeatability as being a necessary part of science? Is it unfair to point out that no evolutionary story can actually be confirmed by the full scientific method?
One of the tools scientists use when parts of the scientific method cannot be or have not been completed is the “inference to the best explanation”. But even the best explanation has some degree of subjectivity. And for some, certain explanations are completely ruled out.
“We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, in spite of its failure to fulfill many of its extravagant promises, because we have a priori commitment, a commitment to materialism.” Richard Lewenton.
People often mistake their faith in materialism for science. This above basic statement of faith is a good example and is held by the many who believe in evolution. In this view the “best explanation” for design cannot include an intelligent designer, not because reason warrants it, but because materialistic faith demands it. One important note is that the word “science” is misused in the above quote. Science is not the origin of the absurd constructs, such as excluding an intelligent designer. Science is a method of discovery; it makes no “promises” of what will or will not be found. It is materialism that is responsible for the absurd constructs and the extravagant promises. Just replace “science” with “materialism” in the above quote. This is a distinction that materialists often fail to make.
In looking further into the missing science in evolutionary storytelling how many places exist where “the best” evolutionary explanation is not accepted by all of the evolutionary scientists? How many of these areas of “debate” reside in the critical details rather than the broad classifications? Can you accept the the overall picture of evolution without supporting details? Can you believe in details that have not or cannot be demonstrated with the scientific method and still call it scientific. Here are just a few of the many areas where science has yet to link evolutionary events.
MISSING LINK: SHELLS
“Some scientists suggest that shells evolved as a means of sorting or filtering nutrients, but the main theory argues that shells were basically a form of self defense…” -The Beginning pg 22
In this case both the main theory and the suggestion are based on the concept that shells evolved with a specific goal in mind, i.e. to filter nutrients or as self defense. These are both intelligent goals that would require a designer. The idea that evolution is goal orientated or purposive is not allowed within the theory yet it is used quite often in evolutionary literature. So how did the shells really evolve, could they evolve at all? Does real science tell us its possible? Do they start with a nutrient sensitive spot or can they demonstrate the mutations from the beginning? They need real science to back up evolutionary claims.
MISSING LINK: SENSES AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
“It is interesting to see how the earliest vertebrates, including jawless fish, had evolved heads. In their continual search for food, fishlike chordates had to be able to smell, touch, and even see the surrounding areas of water. Somehow, this combined search for information lead to the development of a nerve cord with a front end swelling that eventually became a brain. You can see how the shape we are today is directly related to the need to adapt and control what immediately surrounds us.” -The Beginning pg 25
This statement is astounding, how much science got stuffed into that “Somehow?” Evolution is simply assumed here. They are right however, organisms do need a head and heads are a logical result of a need for a head, so its interesting to see how heads somehow evolved. What science has been done to prove that heads can evolve? The development of the senses is a critical evolutionary step. These organisms “had to” sense their environment. How would this need force genetic changes along a very specific path. Sensory apparatus is difficult to design, yet the fossil record shows it going from simple to highly advanced in a moment of geologic time. “Somehow”. There’s evolutionary science in a nutshell. What science led to the discovery that nerve cord swelling will lead to sensory programming and coordination?
MISSING LINK: INSECT WINGS
All insect wings probably had the same origin, evolving from little gill plates raised as sails to help them skim across the surfaces of ancient ponds” -The Beginning pg 48
Powered precision flight from raised gill plates and a few million years. There are some fairly convincing tales on the development of wings in insects as long as you don’t want to think about it too long. The key word here, an evolutionary hard fact word, is “probably.” Has any science shown that mutated gill plates will in fact connect to the nervous and muscular apparatus necessary for powered insect flight? Evolutionary stories often focus on one part of an organism wide system change. No change such as gill plates to wings involves just a change in the structure of one part. They require system wide simultaneous modifications. There is a lot of missing science that will need to fill in that “probably.” But will they still accept the answer if it begins to look like “probably not?”
MISSING LINK: MAN’S ANCESTRY
“The oldest fossil men and women, found in the African lake sediments, belong to the genus Australopithecus (or “Southern ape”). These remains of the fist known mammal to walk upright are believed to be ancestral to our species, and provide a direct evolutionary link between ape-like mammals and humans.” -Science Matters 254
The “direct” link given for ape to man is based on belief. Interesting. The only science that backs this belief is a comparison of structures and assumed abilities. Did anyone see the Australopithecus walk upright or do anything else for that matter? The fact that every single attribute the Australopithecus fossils have can be found in apes is usually ignored. How are these things known? From experience and observation or from authority? These are beliefs as stated above. Do all anthropologists agree or only the reputable ones? Have they done science that shows how the rewiring would occur that is required to transform an Australopithecus brain into a human brain. Have they shown its possible? How many factors are left out when establishing a “direct” link from an unknown starting point? Of course their statement would be considered is a bluff if it weren’t based on faith.
It’s also interesting that the authors identify the apes as “men and women.” This is of course incorrect when used for an ape and demonstrates either their own misunderstanding or subtle attempt to embellish the story.
MISSING LINK: THE AMNIOTIC EGG
“By some mysterious process of change evolving reptiles could lay so-called “amniotic eggs.’ “ -The Beginning pg 49
The mystical power of evolution is the mysterious process of change. Science doesn’t tell us that purposeful systems and structures arise through an accumulation of errors. That is why evolutionists are so often mystified when looking at complex purposeful designs in nature. They see the complexity, they know it looks designed but their philosophical bias will not allow them to see the obvious.
MISSING LINK: SEX
Biologists think that sexual reproduction, when sperm fuses with an egg, evolved as part of an ‘arms race’ with parasites. Sexual reproduction allows for faster evolutionary response than asexual production” -Biology Matters Vol. 9: Evolution pg 51
Besides the fact that an arms race is purposeful, is that sex is not just the joining single cell sperm and egg. That’s the goal. The process is very complex. The many unique delivery and exchange systems and multiple strategies involved are just as important. The different organs and strategies of male and female had to develop simultaneously for every existing reproductive system in biology. How much science is missing here?
MISSING LINK: BIRDS
“And here is a miracle -from some feathered dinosaur there emerged the first bird” -The Beginning pg 73
Are miracles allowed in science or is this just a poor choice of words? Perhaps the author senses something here?
It seems that every few months a report of a possible feathered dinosaur hits the news. The stories are designed to be convincing and are presented by an uncritical media. If you look for the science behind it and follow through you will see the “facts” become objects of scientific debate and then, after a time, another question mark is quietly added to the story of bird evolution.
There are several things however that are critical to bird anatomy that evolutionists keep on the sidelines. Scale to feather evolution has never been shown to be possible, it’s just assumed. How many mutations does it take to turn scales to skin with feathers? Additionally, flight feathers are specifically designed. Each feather has a unique form, function and position on the bird. The bone structure has to be precise and hollow. The metabolism needs to be modified. The hips need to be specialized. Then there is the fused bones in the pelvic girdle that support the specialized lungs. Then there is the preening gland to keep the feathers in good condition. Evolutionists focus on a few structural changes and seem to gloss over the most important key to flight, the will to fly and the programming that gets the whole structure off the ground. All these changes are necessary to take a dinosaur and change it into a bird. Can DNA be modified to such an extent without guidance? Evolutionists testify that these miracles did in fact occur when no one was looking. Just believe.
MISSING LINK: PHOTOSYNTHESIS
“A mammal cannot, for example, improve it’s nutrition by photo-synthesizing like plants, although this would be a superb adaptation in sunny climates. It is impossible because mammals do not start with a genotype containing any genes that could conceivably generate photo-synthetic molecular machinery.” LIFE: Evolution Explained Pg 92
This statement is absolutely correct, but what is it doing in a book promoting evolution? Notice that this author states that it is impossible for mammals to adapt photosynthesis. Impossible? Isn’t evolution all about starting with no genetic information and gaining it accidentally over time to create whole new high tech biological precision systems? Is the fact that a genotype doesn’t have the genes for some feature a problem for evolution? The original organisms scientists believe stumbled upon photosynthesis didn’t have the genes necessary for it either, until, quite by accident, they did.
“Just because science has a gap in its knowledge, that does not entitle you to turn to any other particular alternative.” -Richard Dawkins (from an interview with Bill O’Reilly}
Let’s link this together. Don’t let the evolutionists try to snow you by saying that science is on their side. Dawkins is right in the quote above. He shouldn’t be entitled to turn to any alternative just because of gaps in his knowledge. Of course he meant people who didn’t agree with him. He thinks he is entitled. He incorrectly identifies the gaps in his belief system as being scientific in nature. He assumes they are, whereas he assumes those he disagrees with are faith based.
The gaps in the evolutionary story are not evidence that ID or creationism are correct, but that evolution and materialism are wrong. The more gaps that are discovered and the bigger they become the more the materialistic worldview becomes doubtful if not fantastic. That’s why Dawkins and others steer the conversation towards tautologies like natural selection. Science is failing to fill in the gaps and materialism and evolution has become the “particular alternative” that is taking advantage of the gaps, as well as very deliberately excluding other alternatives. We are told to believe (accept) it now, the science will follow. Cash in now, the check is on its way. But it is belief in materialism that creates the gaps that cannot be filled by science.
There are many more than the brief examples listed here. It should be clear that the story of evolution is not held together by scientific links. Enormous gaps that are filled with fictional tales about what might have happened and what might be observed. If the missing links exist then science not faith needs to fill them in. Belief, not science supports the evolution of new organisms, features or systems. The “fact” of evolution is built on the assumption that materialism is true. The hypothesis that genetic information can spontaneously arise has so far very solidly proven to be false, yet it is essential to the “truth” of molecules to man evolution. It is essential to every step in the evolutionary story. The fact that materialism cannot sufficiently answer these questions makes it a deficient belief system. The gaps are evidence that evolution and materialism are wrong. Better science is discovering design and purpose in a designed and purposeful universe.