How Did God Create Birds?
And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:20-21)
And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. (Genesis 2:19)
This problem is due to several factors, a poor choice of analytical tools and a misunderstanding of the storyline in Genesis chapter 2. First, critics of the Bible usually accept the premise that the first five books of the Bible were written by at least four different authors. This idea has been thoroughly refuted and is discussed in the section "Who Wrote the Bible.
" This is the framework through which they interpret the Bible and since it's incorrect it creates a lot of problems. Since their goal is to show the Bible has problems, they are not inclined to investigate the errors within their own framework. Through this analysis they claim that Genesis chapter one is one version of the creation story written by one author and chapter two is different story from another source. Therefore when they see the origin of birds from the water in chapter one and from the ground in chapter two they have a contradiction that is backed up by their analytical tool.
The fact is that there is one author for the first five books. Chapter one of Genesis is a chronological overview of the creation days. This story continues until chapter two verse three. The chapter divisions were not added until several thousand years after it was written. Chapter two verse four begins in the 6th day with a new perspective. It starts by giving more specific details of the creation, not concerning itself with the order in particular since that was laid out in chapter one. When we get to verse 8 the location of the story becomes specific, the Garden of Eden. All subsequent events happen in the garden. Verse 19 is where the critics have the problem because they either fail to recognize or refuse to accept that the location is in the Garden of Eden and it is no longer talking about the creation days. This passage is where God forms the beasts and the fowls to bring them to Adam. The birds he forms from the ground in chapter two are not the same ones he formed from the water in chapter one. Therefore there is no problem.